Toyota Hilux
From Toyota Australia

Toyota has launched a new turbocharged diesel HiLux range and several breakthrough 4WD traction innovations.

The new traction technology includes vehicle swerve control (VSC), four-wheel drive traction control (4WD-TRC),
brake assist and electronic brake-force distribution.

It is the first time VSC and traction control have been offered on Toyota models in Australia.

Toyota has also upgraded specifications for flagship LandCruiser GXV, facelifted LandCruiser Prado, expanded the
HiLux 4x4 and 4x2 ranges, and introduced a long-wheelbase HiAce semi-bonneted van.

Toyota's new turbocharged diesel HiLux engine is the most advanced turbocharged diesel in the one-tonne 4x4 utility

Its features include a water-cooled turbocharger, electronic fuel injection, ceramic glow plugs and twin counter-rotating
balance shafts.

The 3.0-litre engine delivers 85kW of power at 3600rpm and 295Nm of torque at 2400rpm, and is matched to the
proven LandCruiser 100 Series diesel manual transmission.

Both the turbo-diesel engine and Toyota's new traction technology have been extensively tested in Australia.

Three HiLux turbo diesel models are offered, all in high-level (SR-5) equipment grade.

The new turbo models are 4x4 Double Cab, 4x4 Single Cab and 4x4 Single Cab Cab/Chassis.

It is the first time Toyota has offered SR-5 grade Single Cab models.

Toyota has also launched two new SR-5 grade 4x2 models, aimed at the growing sports truck market.

The new 4x2 Double Cab SR-5 petrol manual and automatic take the overall HiLux range to 28 models - to meet
virtually every possible market need.

Toyota has introduced its new four-wheel-drive traction technology on flagship LandCruiser GXV and the two
high-grade LandCruiser Prado models (VX and Grande).

LandCruiser GXV has VSC, 4WD-TRC, brake assist and electronic brake force distribution.

LandCruiser Prado VX and Grande have four-wheel-drive traction control.

VSC is designed to provide optimal traction in cornering, both on-road and in extreme conditions such as ice and snow.

The new 4WD-TRC has active safety benefits for on and off-road driving, including hill climbing and hill descents in L4
range.B Electronic brake force distribution (EBD) is a sophisticated electronic replacement for the brake system's
load-sensing, proportioning and by-pass valve.

It uses the ABS control until to achieve more ideal brake force distribution between the front and rear wheels,
according to road conditions and vehicle load.



Toyota has expanded its HiLux range to 28 models, to suit the widest possible range of customer requirements.

The expanded range now provides the choice of two and four-wheel drive, five body styles, four engines, four
transmissions and two equipment levels.

There are 14 4x2 models and 14 4x4 models, including three newly introduced turbo-diesel SR-5 grade 4x4 models
and two new petrol SR-5 grade 4x2 Double Cab variants.

The 4x4 turbo range includes, for the first time in HiLux, high-grade Single Cab models.

The new high-grade 4x4 models are the Single Cab SR-5 turbo-diesel utility and Single Cab SR-5 turbo-diesel

In addition, Toyota has introduced a 4x4 turbo diesel Double Cab SR-5.

The five HiLux body styles are Single Cab Cab/Chassis, Single Cab utility, Xtra Cab Cab/Chassis, Xtra Cab utility and
Double Cab utility.

The four engines are: the 2.0 litre EFI-equipped SOHC 1RZ-E petrol in entry level 4x2 Workmate, a 2.7 litre
EFI-equipped Twin Cam Multi-valve four-cylinder 3RZ-FE engine with balance shafts, the 3.0 litre diesel (designated
5L) and the new 3.0 litre EFI-equipped 1KZ-TE turbo-diesel.

Workmate has a five-speed overdrive manual transmission.

The 4X2 models with the larger 2.7 litre petrol engine can be supplied with a five-speed manual or four-speed
overdrive automatic transmission (except Single Cab utility).

3.0 litre Diesel 4x2 models have five-speed manual transmission.

All 4x4 models (petrol, diesel and turbo-diesel) have a rugged upper torsion bar independent front suspension,
five-speed overdrive manual transmission and a two-speed transfer.

Seven high-grade (SR-5) specification models are offered - five 4x4 models and two 4x2 models.

The SR-5 specification includes Toyota's automatic disconnecting front differential (ADD) on 4x4 models, and a power
pack for door locks, windows and exterior mirrors.

(Power mirrors are not available on Single Cab/Chassis SR-5 models.)

A safety option pack (including dual airbag supplementary restraint system, force-limiting front seatbelt pretensioners
and ABS anti-skid brakes) is offered on all models except Workmate.

The full HiLux 4x2 range is:
* Workmate 2.0 litre petrol manual utility
* Workmate 2.0 litre petrol manual Cab/Chassis
* Single Cab utility with 2.7 litre petrol or 3.0 litre diesel with five-speed manual transmission
* Single Cab Cab/Chassis with 2.7 litre petrol and manual or automatic transmission
* Single Cab Cab/Chassis with 3.0 litre diesel with manual transmission
* Xtra Cab utility with 2.7 litre petrol and manual or automatic transmission
* Double Cab utility with 2.7 litre petrol and manual or automatic transmission
* Double Cab diesel utility with manual transmission
* Double Cab SR-5 petrol utility with manual or automatic transmission

The HiLux 4x4 range is:
* Single Cab utility with petrol or diesel engine
* Single Cab Cab/Chassis with petrol or diesel engine
* Single Cab SR-5 utility with turbo-diesel engine
* Single Cab SR-5 Cab/Chassis with turbo-diesel engine
* Xtra Cab utility with petrol or diesel engine
* Xtra Cab Cab/Chassis with diesel engine
* Double Cab utility with petrol or diesel engine
* Double Cab SR-5 utility with petrol, diesel or turbo-diesel engine.


Commercial vehicle market leader Toyota has moved to consolidate its position with strategic launches in several

It has:
* Launched the country's most sophisticated turbo-diesel engine exclusively in the market-leading HiLux 4x4
* Introduced a two wheel drive HiLux SR5 aimed specifically at the emerging sports truck market
* Devised and launched breakthrough vehicle control technology on certain LandCruiser 100 Series and LandCruiser
Prado models
* Upgraded its LandCruiser Prado range, and
* Introduced a long wheelbase version of its HiAce SBV in the one tonne van market.

The consolidated improvements and upgradings come in the middle of one of the busiest launch periods ever
undertaken by any manufacturer or distributor in this country.

In the past four months Toyota has launched new versions of its Celica, LandCruiser 78 Series and Corolla as well as
the new Echo.

It is preparing to launch 10 new models in 2000 including its Australian-made large passenger car the Avalon.

Toyota has seized sales dominance in this decade with 1.23 million vehicle deliveries, ahead of Ford and Holden.

It has held outright market leadership in five years after becoming the first non-American owned company to claim the
number one position in more than 30 years.

Toyota and its dealers are now investing in excess of $140 million in facility improvements to service the enlarged
customer base.

More than one million Toyotas eight or less years old are now estimated to be in the Australian car park - the largest
number ever.

In the last two months Toyota has:
* Opened a new $14.7 million export distribution centre next to its Altona factory to streamline locally made parts
deliveries to overseas and Australian customers, and
* Opened a new intensive test facility at Anglesea in Victoria to develop both locally made and imported vehicles in the
areas of ride and handling and noise and vibration.

Toyota's senior executive vice-president John Conomos said the launch of intermediate product improvements such as
turbo-diesel HiLux and new braking technology would become typical of ongoing adjustments.

The pace of change in the world at large is too rapid to wait for major model changes," Mr Conomos said.

Increasingly significant improvements will be introduced on-line as they become available.

It's possible those improvements will then flow on to far wider application either on line or in major model changes.

The important aspect is to keep faith with an ever demanding customer base by introducing technology improvements
as they become available.



Toyota is to launch its first ever turbo-diesel HiLux 4x4 model as a means of keeping faith with growing customer

The 3.0 litre turbo-diesel HiLux will be the most sophisticated yet offered in Australia, and only the fifth turbo-diesel
ever marketed by Toyota in this country.

The HiLux turbo-diesel will comprehensively increase owner options in the four wheel drive SR5 category.

It will be available in SR5 versions of single cab/chassis, single cab and double cab utilities.

It is expected to double demand for the SR5 grade.

Toyota HiLux already dominates the 4x4 pick-up market and is overall leader in the combined two wheel drive and
four wheel drive segment.

It is the last of the major category contenders to launch a turbo-diesel model.

"HiLux success is directly linked to the demands of its customers," Toyota senior executive vice-president John
Conomos said.

"The strengths of HiLux have been its wide model range, its excellent choice of naturally aspirated engines and its
value-for-money proposition," Mr Conomos said.

"Increasing segment acceptance of turbo-diesel has now created a market opportunity for HiLux.

"The strength of HiLux's naturally aspirated range has been evident in the consistency of its market domination even in
the face of strong opposition from turbocharged diesel models.

Sales of turbocharged diesel models have increased almost 49 percent this year while sales of non-turbocharged
vehicles have declined on average by 15 percent.

Demand for naturally aspirated HiLux has been down just 3 percent. HiLux dominated the 4x4 pick-up market - 40
percent clear of its nearest opposition. "The introduction of a turbo-diesel engine is clearly in response to demand from
customers in a certain segment of the market," Mr Conomos said.

"Toyota's premise has always been to provide a suitable model in every market category. "Turbo-diesel is increasingly
becoming an accepted and legitimate segment of the one tonne 4x4 pick up market - and it is right that the market
leader should offer the most advanced technology.

"Toyota HiLux holds 27 percent of the 4x4 pick up market to end October 1999, and a dominant 23.3 percent of the
total 4x4 and 4x2 segment.

The company's top performing newly launched 78 Series LandCruiser tips the balance further in Toyota's favour.

The HiLux/LandCruiser combined share of the 4x4 pick up market is 39 percent, and in total Toyota holds 29 percent
of the two wheel drive and four wheel drive segment.



Toyota expects to deliver a record 20,000 HiLux in Australia this year for the second successive year.

It cracked the barrier for the first time in 1998 with a record 20,820 deliveries, almost 25 percent greater than its 1997

HiLux has sustained its momentum this year in the face of strong competition, especially from makers of turbo-diesel
4x4 models, and from locally made 4x2 utilities.

Strategic adjustments to its range are expected to maintain market share in 2000. The launch of SR5 grade turbo-diesel
four wheel drives has been supplemented with the introduction of a new 4x2 double cab SR5 aimed at the sports truck

Toyota leads the entire commercial vehicle market to November, with 29.4 percent of all deliveries.

Its leadership is greater than the combined total of its nearest two competitors.

Toyota will claim its 21st successive commercial vehicle market victory.

It leads the van, all-terrain wagon and combined pick-up markets.

Toyota senior executive vice-president John Conomos said competition in all commercial vehicle segments had reached
new intensity.

Toyota's intention to offer a vehicle in every market segment was now under threat in all but a few niche areas.

"There are now 41 competitors in the all-terrain wagon segment without counting model variants," Mr Conomos said.

"Competition of that magnitude demands constant model re-evaluation and upgrade.



Toyota is to use its level two SR5 HiLux to actively pursue the growing sports truck market.

Market interest has been spurred by aggressive marketing campaigns undertaken by both local utility manufacturers.

Toyota is to field luxury pack SR5 HiLux models in the 4x2 and 4x4 markets.

Four wheel drive SR5s will be available in cab chassis, pick-up and double cab versions.

They will use the 2.7 litre Twin Cam Multi-valve petrol engine, the 3.0 litre naturally aspirated diesel engine and the new
3.0 litre EFI turbo-diesel engine.

Two wheel drive SR5 availability will be exclusive to a top end double cab version with the twin cam petrol engine with
the choice of manual or automatic transmission.

All but one of the SR5 grade models have come on stream in the last quarter.

"SR5 demand makes up more than 25 percent of four wheel drive petrol HiLux deliveries," Toyota senior executive
vice president John Conomos said.

"And it comprises more than 10 percent of diesel 4x4 take up.

"It is reasonable to expect a similar, or even better, acceptance of SR5 in the two wheel drive market.

"Market demand for an SUV style vehicle has increased fourfold in the past two years.

"Australians have shown nowhere near the propensity of Americans to adopt the sports truck phenomenon," Mr
Conomos said.

"The majority of sports truck activity has been confined to the second hand market and then they are largely
modifications to locally made utilities.

"There is now however sign of movement amongst traditional customers to seek better optioned work vehicles with a
sports flavour.

"Toyota's two wheel drive HiLux SR5 petrol double cab carries a recommended retail price of $28,680 - directly
competitive with the sports versions of both locally manufactured utilities.

"Most SR5s bought in the four wheel drive market are still used as working vehicles and we would expect similar use
patterns in the two wheel drive segment," Mr Conomos said.

Vehicles broadly classified as sports utilities now comprise approximately 13 percent of the 4x2 pick-up market.



Toyota has commissioned more than $16 million of infrastructure improvements in the last two months.

And it is poised to open phase one of a benchmark $40 million undercover showroom complex in Sydney in February.

TMC director Kazuo Okamoto in early December opened Toyota's new purpose-built three kilometre test facility at
Anglesea in Victoria.

The new circuit, which replicates horror road conditions from throughout Australia, is claimed as a breakthrough in test
track design.

The eight engineers from Toyota's Vehicle Engineering Evaluation department can conduct quantifiable repetitious
testing at speed and in safety on the $1.8 million circuit.

The test track provides Toyota in Japan for the first time with known-quantity test data from Australia - a boon to
speeding local vehicle development.

The test track follows the theme of all Toyota test tracks including the massive Shibetsu Proving Ground in northern
Japan which contains elements of the most dynamically demanding road conditions in the world.

Replication of real road situations is now considered a more contemporary and worthwhile test condition than a reliance
solely on the high speed bowls built and still used by most automakers.

Toyota in November commissioned a new $14.7 million export distribution centre adjacent to its Altona manufacturing

The centre adopts for the first time the Toyota Production System widely regarded as the world's most efficient
manufacturing technique.

Integration of TPS into parts supply is likely to be a boon to Toyota's 93 first tier suppliers in Australia as well as to
dealers and their customers.

Faster and more efficient supply of replacement components with significantly less holding and processing time is
already being realised.

Toyota will open phase one of its company-owned Sydney City Toyota site at Waterloo in February.

The site is claimed to be the largest fully undercover dealership in the world.

Elements of the design will be available to Toyota's 270-strong dealer network to integrate into their own facilities.

"Change is occurring at an exponential rate," Toyota senior executive vice president John Conomos said.



Toyota's new HiLux turbo-diesel has the most torque in the one-tonne diesel utility class.

The new 3.0 litre Toyota 1KZ-TE turbo-diesel engine delivers 85kW of power at 3600rpm and 295Nm of torque at

It has 15Nm more torque than its nearest one-tonne turbo-diesel utility competitor.

Advanced features in the Toyota 1KZ-TE include electronic fuel injection and twin counter-rotating balance shafts to
reduce NVH.

The new turbo-diesel engine is offered in three HiLux 4x4 models - Double Cab SR-5, Single Cab SR-5 and Single
Cab Cab/Chassis SR-5.

It is matched to a proven LandCruiser 100 Series R151F manual transmission.



The new HiLux turbo is the first electronically injected diesel engine in the one- tonne 4x4 utility class and Toyota's first
EFI-equipped diesel in Australia.

The 2982cm3 single-overhead camshaft Toyota 1KZ-TE engine is the most advanced turbocharged diesel in the class.

The new Toyota engine has a lightweight, compact, water-cooled turbocharger for a balance of performance, fuel
economy and durability.

Advanced features also include ceramic glow plugs, a vane-type fuel pump, cross-flow alloy cylinder head and twin
counter-rotating balance shafts.

Toyota designed the 1KZ-TE engine for a combination of performance, economy, package efficiency, reliability and
low NVH.

The Toyota 1KZ-TE engine has a deep-skirt, externally ribbed, linerless construction cylinder block for maximum
rigidity and low noise.

The block material is wear-resistant alloy cast iron and the bores have been plateau honed for more efficient piston ring

The fully balanced steel crankshaft has five journals and runs in aluminium alloy bearings.

Special attention has been paid to minimising reciprocating mass.

Connecting rods are lightweight carbon steel to suit high engine speeds and high engine torque.

Each connecting rod has an internal oil passage, which feeds an oil gallery in the piston.

The small-end bearings are tapered to reduce weight and the big-ends have plastic region tightening bolts to maximise
clamping force for the size of the bolt.

The pistons are aluminium alloy to maximise high-temperature strength and reduce weight.

The pistons have a FRM (fibre reinforced metal) top ring groove to improve wear resistance and an oil gallery inside the
ring land to improve piston cooling.

Bore and stroke dimensions are under-square at 96mm by 103mm, to maximise torque.

Cross-Flow Head: HiLux turbo-diesel has an aluminium alloy cylinder head for high thermal conductivity and light

The cylinder head has a cross-flow configuration, to improve intake and exhaust efficiency. The shape of the
combustion chamber and the injection nozzle location have been optimised to increase engine performance and reduce
exhaust emissions.

Plastic region tightening cylinder head bolts are used to maximise clamping force. Cylinder head gasket pressure
resistance and sealing performance have been optimised by adopting a steel laminate type gasket.

Gasket thickness is tailored to each engine to ensure correct compression ratio and avoid any protrusion of the pistons
above the cylinder block deck.

The 1KZ-TE's single overhead camshaft acts directly on the valves, to ensure the valve actuation more accurately
follows camshaft profiles.

Camshaft drive is by timing gears to the injection pump gear, then a toothed rubber belt with an automatic tensioner and
a belt idler.

The compact fuel injection nozzles have a double-cut needle.

The needle clearance has been optimised to reduce exhaust emissions and noise during idling.

The glow plugs have ceramic tips, to improve reliability.

A baffle plate and a camshaft cover inside the cylinder head cover reduce consumption of engine oil by reducing gas

Twin Balance Shafts:

Toyota's 1KZ-TE engine has twin balance shafts to reduce engine vibration.

The two counter-rotating balance shafts are gear driven to rotate at twice crankshaft speed.

The timing gear train also drives the oil pump, vacuum pump and fuel injection pump.

The combination of EFI and Toyota's vane-type injection pump provides optimum fuel injection timing and volume.

Features of the fuel pump include a spill control valve, timing control valve, fuel temperature sensor, engine speed
sensor and correction resistors.

Low Noise & Weight: The HiLux turbo-diesel engine's NVH counter measures include its twin balance shafts,
high-rigidity cylinder block, and scissors gears on both the back and front of the timing gear idler gear.

The cylinder head cover is made of resin to reduce weight and noise.

A two-valve type venturi reduces vibration on engine shutdown.

Engine service weight has been reduced by adopting an aluminium cylinder head, gear and belt camshaft drive, resin
cylinder head cover and an aluminium radiator core.



Toyota's new HiLux turbo-diesel engine has low emissions, in some cases many times lower than the maximum
allowable under Australian Design Rules.

The 3.0 litre HiLux turbo-diesel's CO emissions are one 20th of the level specified by the Australian Design Rules.

The vehicle's hydrocarbon emissions and oxides of nitrogen are one fifth of the levels specified by Australian Design



Toyota's new HiLux 3.0 litre turbo-diesel was extensively tested in Australia.

Local testing resulted in significantly improved cooling performance for towing.

Toyota Australia engineers and testers from Toyota Japan drove a fully laden prototype HiLux turbo-diesel with
1800kg trailer around Alice Springs in scorching summer conditions.

Lessons from the GCM (gross combination mass) test saw Toyota make several key changes for the production model.

Changes included a new, larger radiator, new fan shroud, a change to long-life coolant and relocation of one air
conditioner pipe.

Fuel consumption data from the evaluation showed the turbo-diesel vehicle was 16 percent more fuel efficient over the
full length of the test program than the naturally aspirated model.



Toyota's new HiLux turbo-diesel 4x4 has a proven LandCruiser transmission.

HiLux's 1KZ-TE turbo-diesel engine is matched to Toyota's R151F five-speed overdrive manual transmission and a
two-speed transfer.

The R151F transmission has ratios of: 1st, 4.313; 2nd, 2.330; 3rd, 1.436; 4th, 1.000; 5th, 0.838 and reverse, 4.220.

Final drive ratio is 3.727:1.



Toyota has launched two new HiLux 4x2 models, aimed at the emerging sports truck market.

The new HiLux 4x2 Double Cab SR-5 has many added features.

Two models are offered: 2.7 litre petrol 5 speed manual transmission and 2.7 litre petrol 4 speed automatic transmission.

The SR-5 grade added features include:
* smooth-sided rear deck
* 5.5J steel wheels
* chrome-plated front bumper
* chrome-plated rear bumper with step
* chrome-plated radiator grille, exterior mirrors and windscreen moulding
* power windows
* power mirrors
* power door locks
* tachometer and digital clock
* high-grade seat trim and door trim inserts
* floor carpet
* lockable glovebox
* headlamps-on reminder
* door-ajar warning lamp
* laminated windscreen with green top shade
* remote fuel-lid opener
* front mudflaps and
* cigarette lighter illumination.



Toyota's new top-of-the-range LandCruiser and LandCruiser Prado wagons have increased off-road active safety.

Four-wheel-drive traction control (4WD-TRC) is standard equipment on new LandCruiser GXV, LandCruiser Prado
VX and LandCruiser Prado Grande.

The new 4WD-TRC is Toyota's first traction control system for production 4x4 vehicles in Australia.

It has dedicated strategies for on-road and low-range off-road conditions.

The concept is to provide stability in on-road (H4 - high range) applications and maximum traction for rugged off-road

In addition to increased active safety, the Toyota 4WD-TRC system is a significant driving aid should the vehicle
become stuck in mud.

System Operation: Toyota's 4WD-TRC system controls the rotation speed of each wheel independently (using the
brake system if required), to provide improved off-road capability and acceleration on slippery surfaces.

For example, if diagonally opposite wheels lose traction, 4WD-TRC will apply the brakes to these wheels.

Driving force will be transmitted to the other wheels via the vehicle's differentials - allowing the vehicle to continue

The system does not require differential locks, so in extreme 4WD conditions the vehicle can still be steered around a
corner or clear of an obstacle.

(A locked front differential dramatically reduces steering ability.)

The 4WD-TRC operates using much of the ABS hardware and software.

On LandCruiser GXV, it uses the electronic throttle to control engine power if required.

On LandCruiser Prado V6, the system includes a secondary butterfly in the throttle body.

On-Road Traction:
When the vehicle is in H4 range, Toyota's 4WD-TRC system operates like the traction control system in a rear-drive
passenger car.

The H4 philosophy is to prevent the rear end of the vehicle stepping out.

The 4WD-TRC therefore offers improved driving feel and active safety when the vehicle is on two surfaces with
different traction levels, a low-traction surface (such as a gravel road) or in general driving.

The system's target wheel speed in H4 range is the average speed of the four wheels.

It allows a small degree of acceleration slippage, for optimum traction.

Any application of the brakes to reduce wheel speed is relatively gentle.

Off-Road Traction:

Toyota's 4WD-TRC provides maximum engine braking for off-road descents, to ensure individual wheels do not

A locked wheel can cause the vehicle to accelerate and/or slide out of control.

The target wheel speed in L4 range is the slowest possible speed.

The 4WD-TRC L4 system also provides traction and controllability for driving through or out of extremely slippery
conditions, such as mud.

The system operates in forward or reverse gear, to provide added safety whether driving forward or reversing down a

There is a target control speed when the transmission is in L4 first gear, for extremely steep descents. Driver Warning:
Toyota's 4WD-TRC has a dashboard indicator lamp, which flashes when the traction control is in operation.

There is a warning buzzer to alert the driver if the temperature of the ABS actuator rises excessively due to prolonged
4WD-TRC operation.