Copyright © 2007 Brian McCamish,  All Rights Reserved
Specifications of the 1FZ-FE
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Last Update:  February 21, 2007
FZJ80 Engine and Tranny Specifications & Info
Our Expedition
Toyota Land Cruiser
FZJ80
MAINPAGE
Years of manufacture:   1993-current for some countries.    Models:  FZJ80, FZJ70, FZJ75, FZJ78, FZJ79, FZJ100, FZJ105
(note:  U.S. imports stopped in 1998 with the introduction of the UZJ100 Land Cruiser, however some overseas 100 series LCs use the 1FZ  today)

Type:   
Inline 6 cylinder   Displacement:  4477cc (4.5 liters)
Valve train:   Dual Over head cam, 24 valves - 4 valves per cylinder
Latest 2006+ models have Variable Valve Timing (VVTi)
Fuel system:  EFI (some countries have carburated versions called the 1FZ-F)
bore x stroke:  100 x 95mm
Combustion Chamber type:  Pentroof type
Manifold Type:   Cross-flow, equal length runners
Compression ratio:  9 to 1
Ignition system:  Early models have distributor electronic ignition.   Some post 1998 models have direct ignition (TDI)
Oil capacity:  8 quarts
Normal engine temp:  203 degrees +/- 23 degrees   AC cut off @ 226 degrees
Horsepower:  212 @ 4600 rpm (U.S. spec FZJ80)
Torque:  275 ft.lbs @ 3200 rpm (U.S. spec FZJ80)
Engine weight:  584 lbs
Engine Length x Width x Height:   940 x 670 x 825 mm
1FZ-FE engine cross sections
These are photos and engine chart of an Australian 2000ish Land Cruiser 78 series 1FZ-FE.   While the engine was largely the same as the 1FZ-FE
found in the early to late 1990s U.S. spec 80 series, there were some notable differences, including a direct ignition system, which replaced the
distributor and a different style intake manifold.   Engine performance was slightly better than the older versions, but not by much.   As of 2006, this
engine is apparently no longer sold in Australia, but production continues for South America and possibly other countries.
Transmission Specifications
Transfer Case Specifications
A440F   
Produced January, 1990 through July, 1992 on U.S. spec FJ80s
1st gear:  2.950 to 1
2nd gear:  1.530 to 1
3rd gear:  1.00 to 1
overdrive:  .717 to 1
reverse:  2.678 to 1
Fluid capacity:  16.4 US quarts

A440F  
Produced August, 1992 through December, 1994 on U.S. spec FZJ80s, production continued on non-US. spec LC80s

1st gear: 2.950 to 1
2nd gear: 1.530 to 1
3rd gear:  1.00 to 1
overdrive:  .765 to 1
(approximately 6% lower overdrive than previous model)
reverse: 2.678 to 1
Fluid capacity:  16.4 US quarts

A343F
Produced January, 1995 through January 1998 on U.S. spec FZJ80s.  Production continued on U.S. spec UZJ100 models
1st gear:  2.804 to 1
(approximately 5% higher than A440F's first gear)
2nd gear: 1.531 to 1
3rd gear:  1.00 to 1
overdrive:  .753. to 1
(approximately 1.5% higher overdrive than previous model)
reverse:  2.393 to 1
(approximately 12% higher reverse gear than previous model)
Fluid capacity:  11.7 US quarts
Note:  Info obtained from www.ih8mud.com, post by Cruiserdan
HF2A
Produced on model year 1991-1992 FJ80s with the 3FE engine and a few 1993-1994 models without ABS and full floater rear axle.
In 1998, Toyota reintroduced this transfer case in the Land Cruiser 100

Type:  Full Time, 2 speed transfer case, gear driven.
Manufacture:  Aisin
High gear: 1.00 to 1
Low gear: 2.448 to 1
Center Diff:  Geared center differential, open type
Center diff lock:  Electric
Oil capacity:  1.9 quarts


HF2AV
Produced on model year 1993-1994 U.S. spec FZJ80s with the 1FZ engine, ABS and full floating axle and all U.S. spec 1995-1997 FZJ80s.  

Type:  Full Time, 2 speed transfer case, gear driven.
Manufacture:  Aisin
High gear:  1.00 to 1
Low gear: 2.448 to 1
Center Diff:  Geared center differential wih visous coupling limited slip
Center diff lock:  Electric
Oil capacity:  1.9 quarts

Note:   
The part time version of this transfer case is called the HF1A, but was only available on some overseas Land Cruiser 80 series
and is used on the Land Cruiser 70 series
The 1FZ-FE was introduced in 1993 and was exclusively designed for use in the Toyota Land Cruisers, including 70, 80 and
100 series models.   It's most famous and most short lived application was in the U.S. spec 80 series.   For the U.S. market, the
1FZ-FE was only available in the 1993-1997 Land Cruiser 80 series models and it was soon forgotten when the new 100 series
and its 4.7 liter 2UZ-FE V-8 was introduced in 1998 in the U.S. market.

However, the 1FZ-FE did not fade away.  Instead, production continued all over the world and it remained the primary Land
Cruiser petrol engine for the 70 series and was even used in some 100 series Land Cruisers.  Production also continued along
with the 80 series exclusively in Venezuela.

Today, the 1FZ-FE is still in production in some overseas markets and even includes a refined version with VVTi that makes 240
h.p. and 300 ft/lbs of torque.   However, we may be experiencing the final days of the 1FZ-FE.

There is indication that Venezuelan production of their 80 series will soon cease, if it hasn't already and a brand new 200 series
Land Cruiser SUV is currently in production. The 70 series just underwent a major front end revision to allow the new wider V-8
diesel to fit.   It's possible that the 2UZ-FE will soon become the new base Land Cruiser petrol engine in place of the 1FZ-FE.   
Whatever happens, the 1FZ has led a very long and prosperous life and deserves a tremendous amount of respect as one of
Toyota's best creations and one of the world's most reliable automobile petrol engines.
The previous generation I-6

From approximately the mid 1950s through 1992, Toyota had relied on the same basic engine design to  power its petrol Land Cruisers, the F
series inline 6 cylinder.

The F-series began with the original F motor in the mid 1950s, which was a 3.8 liter I-6 that was somewhat based on the design of the Chevrolet
224 cubic inch I-6.   The 4.2 liter 2F was an updated version that was introduced in 1974 and remained in production through 1984.  The 3F was the
final version of the F series and culminated with the 3FE, the fuel injection version, which was introduced in 1988.  This 4 liter engine made 155 h.p.
and 220 ft/lbs of torque.   This was probably about as far as the old F series design could go and Toyota knew it.   The F-series engine had one thing
going for it.  It was simple, bulletproof and very reliable.  But it lacked power and fuel economy and by the 1980s, those were becoming critical
components for the increasingly larger and heavier Land Cruiser.

By the late 1980s, Toyota began development of the replacement for the 3FE.  The decision was made to build a motor from the ground up.  The new
engine would share nothing with the F series, but it would have to be an in-line 6 cylinder roughly the same size as the 3FE.  The reason is that the
new motor would go into the same vehicles as the 3FE and Toyota had no intention of completely redesigning the many variants of the Land Cruiser
to fit a large V-6 or V-8 engine.   So, Toyota was limited somewhat in the dimensions of the new engine.   But beyond that, they were able to start
fresh.   One of the major design parameters of the new engine was that it had to be as reliable or more reliable than the 3F series, since its intended
recipient would be the Land Cruiser and its intended market would primarily be 3rd world countries and Africa, Australia and South America.  The
U.S. market would only get a fraction of the 1FZ production in their U.S. spec Land Cruiser 80 series and therefore little consideration was paid to the
fact that most U.S. spec Land Cruisers would never leave pavement, nor be far from a repair shop.

Engineering the new engine

The new engine would be called 1FZ-FE and it would a 4.5 liter inline 6 cylinder.   The engine designation read as follows.  (1) stood for the first
generation of this engine.   As it would turn out, there never would be 2nd generation of this engine family as Toyota got it right the first time.   
(FZ) stood for engine family.  Although designated an "F" engine, it shared no parts or design with the original F series engines.   The next (F) stood
for it being a narrow angle, dual overhead cam design, and (E) stood for electronic fuel injection.   It should be noted here that not all 1FZ motors
were fuel injected.  Some overseas models were carbureted and thus the (E) was dropped and they were called 1FZ-F motors.

4.5 liters is huge for a 6 cylinder engine and the bore x stroke of the engine would actually be the similar in size to a typical 400 cubic inch V-8.  What
is amazing about the 1FZ is that Toyota was able to significantly increase the displacement of the 1FZ within roughly the same block dimensions of
the 3FE.   However, make no mistake, the 1FZ shares no design features of the 3FE as they are completely two different motors.

Head and Intake system

For the new motor, Toyota would go with a long proven and fairly conventional design, by then.   A cross flow intake system, where exhaust was on
one side and the intake was on the other would be combined with a 4 valve per cylinder and double over head cam valve train design.    Instead of
using a timing belt as on its other V-6 and I-6 cylinder designs, it went with a single heavy duty timing chain, to rotate the intake cam, which then
rotates the exhaust cam with scissor style gears.    The chain would ride on metal guilds with plastic lining.  This design was fairly efficient and
helped increase power, but more importantly, it was extremely reliable.  No timing belts needed to be replaced and although only a single timing
chain, the chain rarely wore out.     The valve train was a narrow design for compactness to keep the dimensions of the head as close to the 3FE as
possible, allowing it to fit in the same vehicles as the 3FE did.    One major difference between the 3FE and the 1FZ is the use of aluminum instead
of cast iron in the head design.    However, Toyota actually did build cast iron heads for some 1FZ motors.  These appear to be only on the
carbureted version, which was available only in certain countries.

The intake manifold was designed to use long 400mm runners and shaped so that each cylinder had an equal length runner.   This significantly
improved the flat torque curve.   The intake manifold is a two piece unit made of aluminum.  The fuel injected version of this motor is by far the most
common and it uses a multi-port fuel sequential  injection system.   Fuel injection is controlled by a digital ECU unit that is located inside the vehicle.
Early models 1993-1994 were OBD-I compliant, which meant they used a less advanced, but somewhat simpler standard for the ECU.   1996 and
1997 models used the newer OBD-II standard, which basically includes more sensors, and on board diagnostics, making it easier for smog
stations to test the engine.   1995 models were a transition year and sort of combined OBD-1 with partial OBD-II compliance.   It's not clear how 1998
and later models were designed as OBD was a North American standard and the 1FZ ceased being imported in the U.S. in 1997.

Ignition System

The ignition system of the 1FZ is fairly conventional.   A gear driven distributor is located near the front of the head and is run off of the timing gear.  
The distributor is an electronic type with an external coil/igniter.   On some later non U.S. spec models made sometime after 1998, Toyota introduced
a direct ignition type system, where each cylinder has its only coil pack and the distributor was eliminated from the system.

The Block and Internals

The 1FZ would be equipped with two knock sensors in a system known as KCS (knock control system).   They would be installed in the block side
wall above No. 2 and No. 5 cylinders.   The KCS can accurately and quickly detect knocking and control the ignition timing to compensate as needed.

The block of the 1FZ is conventionally made of iron and makes up a significant portion of the almost 600lb weight of the engine.   However, it's
unique in that it's a short skirt block design to reduce weight and has a cast-in rear transmission bell.  The outer wall curves outward towards the
bottom to increase rigidity.   As part of the short skirt design a two piece oil pan is used.  The upper piece is made of thick die cast aluminum and
makes up for the short skirt block design while reducing weight.  The lower sump half of the oil pan is made of rust resistant sheet steel.  A sensor
is located in the oil sump that indicates oil level and once it reaches a certain level, a light turns on in the instrument panel.   Also cast into the block
is a built in oil cooler and a mount for the power steering pump, which is gear driven (not belt) off of the valve train system.

The 1FZ uses a conventional lubrication system, including an engine mounted sump, which holds a whopping 8 quarts of oil and a gear driven oil
pump.   A special oil jet system is used to keep the pistons cool.  A feature usually reserved for turbo charged type engines.  The oil filter is located
high on the block on the intake side and depending on vehicle model and engine accessories can be difficult to reach.

The pistons are Strutless type and made of aluminum alloy and are connected to forged connecting rods, that have been double shot peened and
then connected to the crankshaft.  The crankshaft uses 7 journal and 12 balance weights.   Bore and stroke is 100 x 95mm.   The stroke is equivalent
to the 3FE, but the bore is about 6% wider.   The compression ratio of 9 to 1 is significantly higher than the 3FE's 8 to 1, but still fairly low by modern
standards.   This allows the 1FZ to easily run on low grade pump gas often found in 3rd world countries.   It also helps to improve longevity of the
engine.

Cooling System

The cooling system is fairly conventional.  A radiator holds water/coolent, which is fed to the engine via bottom bypass thermostat.   The water pump
and fan are run off of the same pully which is connected to the crankshaft pully via a double belt fail safe system.  The fan uses 8, 470mm  blades
and uses a three stage temperature controlled fan clutch.   Early models, 1993-1994 used a larger copper 3 core radiator.   Later models,
1995-1997+, used a 2 core aluminum type radiator.  The reason for the change is not clear, but the later design is often criticized as being not as
good as the earlier copper models.  When maintained, both type cooling systems are adequate.

Final Notes

Instead of reinventing the wheel, Toyota engineers took the best of its past motors and incorporated them into the 1FZ to make it one of the most
reliable engines ever built.   The 1FZ is often criticized as being a fuel guzzler.   To some degree that's true, but one must remember that the 1FZ is
the power plant to vehicles that weight in excess of 3 tons.  Also, the motor was designed to be reliable and have tremendous low end torque first
and foremost.   Economy was on the design list, but further down and in a day and age before fuel efficiency was a major concern.  What was a
concern to Toyota engineers was that this motor would see duty in countries where repair and service would be rare, if ever and the vehicles they
were to power would be required to carry and/or tow tremendous amounts of weight.  Consideration was given to making the motor as durable as
possible, while dramatically improving extreme low and mid range torque.

The 1FZ has very few inherent mechanical issues, but there are some things to consider.   Toyota and other manufactures had issues with head
gasket material in the 1980s to mid 1990s as asbestos was outlawed and could no longer be used in head gasket material.   During this interim
period, manufactures had a difficult time finding a suitable replacement material and as a result, many Toyota engines, including the 1FZ can blow
head gaskets at higher mileage.  Usually around 150,000 miles.   The new head gasket designs are superior and should last the remaining life of
the engine.

The 1FZ has a unique cooling hose issue, in which several small external cooling hoses can wear out after 100,000 miles and leak.  This would not
normally be a big deal, except some of these hoses are hard to reach and time consuming to repair.   It's often recommended to replace these
hoses before they start to leak.

As for longevity, the 1FZ typically lasts well over 300,000 miles when basic care is given to the motor.   I've often read reports of engines being tore
down with 300,000 miles and no major wear to the bottom end.   200,000 and higher mileage vehicles are extremely common and most of these
have had no major repairs.

Oil recommendations:

This has been a major source of controversy.    For U.S. spec vehicles, Toyota recommend 5w-30 for most conditions and 10w-30 for extreme hot
conditions.  However, this likely has less to do with what is best for engine longevity and more to do with fuel economy.  The lighter oil just barely
improves fuel economy and the government mandates that manufactures recommend an oil that is fuel saving.  

However, in Australia where the weather is mild to hot and there is no such fuel economy requirement, Toyota recommends a 20w-50 type oil.
One has to assume the heavier weight oil is better for the engine, but more research and debate is needed.
Toyota Land Cruiser
FZJ80 Tech